compound (Tissue-Tek, Sakura Finetek U.S.A., Inc, Rabbit Polyclonal to FXR2 Torrance, CA) on dry ice. vascularization of the fracture callous. Lastly, expression patterns of important growth factors regulating angiogenesis could be assessed by molecular methods such as hybridization. INTRODUCTION Bone fractures are usually accompanied by injuries to the vasculature. A hematoma forms round the fracture site, and an inflammatory Tenofovir alafenamide fumarate response is initiated. This initial reaction stimulates angiogenesis, and the blood supply to the hurt bone returns. Previous clinical observations and experimental studies have decided that angiogenesis is necessary for normal fracture repair. Inhibition of new blood vessel formation induced by the administration of TNP-470 was shown to prevent fracture healing in rats.1 Conversely, exogenous application of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent pro-angiogenic agent, significantly accelerates fracture healing.2,3,4,5 The importance of the blood supply to fracture healing has been long recognized. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that govern angiogenesis and the role that this blood supply plays during fracture healing remain largely unknown. Regulation of angiogenesis during endochondral ossification of the fracture callus entails complex signaling processes, including that via VEGF,6,7 but the mechanisms regulating vascular repair during the early stages of healing are unknown. The blood supply certainly provides essential nutrients to cells, but whether and through what mechanism vascularity influences events that occur during fracture repair is not obvious. For instance, chondrocyte differentiation can be enhanced by low oxygen tension (hypoxia); 8,9 however, this phenomenon was not confirmed in an animal fracture model that experienced impaired vascular regeneration.1 Additionally, the blood supply could be a route for migration of systemic stem cells to sites of bone injury. In both of these cases the extent of the vascular injury and the rate of vascular repair could significantly influence Tenofovir alafenamide fumarate cell differentiation during skeletal repair. To address the extent to which angiogenesis impacts cell fate decisions during fracture repair, a thorough assessment of angiogenesis during healing is required. Rodent models are excellent tools to study bone biology and skeletal repair for a variety of reasons. Mouse models in particular are desirable due to the availability of a plethora of genetically designed strains and the large quantity and availability of reagents for cellular and molecular analyses. Our laboratory has developed several mouse models of tibia fractures that have provided valuable information regarding mechanical, cellular, and molecular mechanisms that control bone regeneration.10,11,12,13 However, due to the small size of mice, assessing vascularization during fracture healing using techniques developed for larger animals has proven hard. The goal of this work was to assess a variety of methods to analyze structural and functional aspects of angiogenesis during fracture healing. We have developed and/or optimized a variety of techniques to analyze the structural, functional, cellular, and molecular features of angiogenesis during healing of non-stabilized fractures of mouse tibias. MATERIALS AND METHODS Animals Ten to 14 week aged male wild type (129J/B6, The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine, USA) and transgenic (Tie2-cre,14 Rosa26R) mice were used in this study. All animal procedures were approved by the UCSF Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee and conformed to state and federal regulations for use of vertebrate animals in research. Creating tibia fractures Animals were anesthetized with 2% Avertin (2,2,2 tribromoethanol, Sigma-Aldrich), and then a closed transverse fracture was created by three-point-bending of the mid-diaphysis of the right tibia.10,11 These fractures were not stabilized, and animals were allowed to move freely after recovering from anesthesia. Buprenex was administered subcutaneously to relieve post-surgical pain. Blood vessel casting and micro-CT scanning At 14 days post-fracture, animals were euthanized with an overdose of 2% Avertin, and the femoral vessels and the heart were exposed. The right atrium was opened. The entire vascular system was then flushed by injecting heparinized saline (100U/ml) into the left ventricle until the femoral vessels switched white Tenofovir alafenamide fumarate and the saline flowing out of the right atrium became obvious. Microfil (Flow Tech. MV-diluent:MV-compound (5:1) and MV-curing agent (10% of the total volume)) was prepared immediately before injection. The entire vascular system was then perfused by intracardiac injection (left ventricle) of 3-5 ml of the Microfil. After perfusion, animals were placed at 4C for 2 hours or overnight in.
- T-cell epitopes are peptides derived from antigens and identified by the T-cell receptor (TCR) when bound to MHC molecules displayed within the cell surface of APCs
- Cloning of gene fragments encoding diagnostic antigens
- Epitopes are present on a single HLA (private epitope) or shared by multiple antigens (public epitope)
- Spleens were harvested in 1 (C) or 2 wpi (B, C) and cells were analyzed by movement cytometry in comparison to na?ve mice
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