In this context we conclude from our present results that IL-21 in pemphigus is partially released by activated Th17 cells since we detected IL-17/IL-21 double positive T cells in our patients (Fig 5C) and additionally IL-21 has been shown to promote the differentiation of Th17, as an autocrine factor [49, 50]. of the auto-ab response in pemphigus. Introduction Pemphigus is an antibody (ab)-mediated autoimmune disease in which auto-ab mainly directed against the desmosomal cadherin Desmoglein (Dsg) 3 and Dsg1 cause loss of keratinocyte adhesion in the human skin. This process, called acantholysis, presents clinically with flaccid MYO10 blisters and erosions of the skin and mucous membranes [1, 2]. Since the precise immunological events resulting in the breakdown of self-tolerance in pemphigus are not yet completely comprehended, therapeutic options are mainly confined to broad systemic immunosuppression often causing significant side effects and comorbidities . In pemphigus vulgaris (PV), the most common clinical variant of pemphigus, several and studies exhibited the critical role of Dsg3-specific CD4+ T cells in the generation of Dsg3-specific auto-ab [4C9]. Based on the strong prevalence of distinct human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II alleles in PV, our group recently showed in an HLA-DRB1*04:02Ctransgenic mouse model of PV that HLA-DRB1*04:02-restricted T cell recognition of human CB-184 Dsg3 is critical for the induction of pathogenic IgG abs that were capable of inducing intraepidermal loss of adhesion . Autoreactive CD4+ T cells are essential for the pathogenesis of several ab-mediated autoimmune diseases by providing help to autoreactive B cells resulting in the production of antigen-specific auto-ab. Beside pemphigus, the chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease myasthenia gravis (MG), in which auto-ab against components of the neuromuscular junction cause muscle weakness and abnormal fatigue, is dependent on T cells . To date, alterations in several T cell subsets like CD4+CD25+ Treg and Th17 cells, have been described for pemphigus and MG and are suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of these diseases [12C14]. Recently, T follicular helper (Tfh) cells have been newly identified to be critically involved in inflammation and B cell activation in autoimmune disease [15, 16]. Tfh cells are specialized in providing help to B cells in germinal centers (GC) and produce high amounts of IL-21 upon activation. Typically, they express the homing receptor CXC-chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5), defining the localization to B cell follicles within secondary lymphoid tissues [15, 16]. Based on their ability to control the induction of high-affinity humoral immune responses, Tfh cells have been investigated in several autoimmune disorders, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and MG [17C19], which are all linked to the presence of pathogenic IgG auto-ab. To our knowledge, a potential contribution of Tfh cells to the pathogenesis of pemphigus has not been elucidated. Cytokines, primarily produced by antigen-presenting cells (APC), play a crucial role during auto-ab response by mediating the function of autoreactive T cells. Hence, monocytes and dendritic cells (DC) have been shown to be CB-184 critically involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, including SLE, type I diabetes, and psoriasis vulgaris . However, the role of disease-promoting cytokines in pemphigus has not yet been fully comprehended. Interleukin-27 (IL-27) is usually produced by activated APC and enhanced expression has been found in inflamed tissues [21, 22]. IL-27 has been thoroughly investigated in several autoimmune disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE), psoriasis, and Sj?grens syndrome (SS) [23C27]. However, the function of IL-27 in the pathogenesis of pemphigus has not yet been characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate APC-derived cytokines, including IL-27, and their relation to CD4+ T cell subsets and to the auto-ab response in pemphigus. Clinically well-defined pemphigus patients and healthy controls (HC) were analyzed. Patients with the neuromuscular disease MG were included as a further unrelated ab-mediated autoimmune disease in order to demarcate the immunological particularities detected in pemphigus patients from those of CB-184 other autoimmune disorders. Here, for the first time we can show that in pemphigus significantly elevated IL-27 plasma.
- T-cell epitopes are peptides derived from antigens and identified by the T-cell receptor (TCR) when bound to MHC molecules displayed within the cell surface of APCs
- Cloning of gene fragments encoding diagnostic antigens
- Epitopes are present on a single HLA (private epitope) or shared by multiple antigens (public epitope)
- Spleens were harvested in 1 (C) or 2 wpi (B, C) and cells were analyzed by movement cytometry in comparison to na?ve mice
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