Ig (IVIG), IgG may suppress inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo (33)

Ig (IVIG), IgG may suppress inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo (33). from normal serum, as well as addition of purified IgG to NPSLE CSF and serum in the bioassays revealed that one inhibitor was contained within the IgG fraction itself. In addition to IFN-, immune complexes formed by CSF autoantibodies produced significantly increased levels of IFN-amebocyte lysate clot assay (Associates of Cape Cod) after Triton X-100 treatment. mAb to IFN- was from PBL Biomedical Laboratories, and control mouse IgG1 was from eBioscience. Human IFN-was obtained from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Reference Reagent Repository (operated by KamTek). Patients All SLE patients fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology 1982 revised criteria for the classification of SLE (22), and the diagnosis of NPSLE was based on the case definition D-Melibiose studies of the 19 NPSLE syndromes proposed by the American College of Rheumatology that also include exclusion criteria (Ref. 23 and the appendix contained therein). The clinical and serological features of the NPSLE patients are described in Table I. NPSLE and other autoimmune disease controls (OAID) were patients hospitalized in Jichi Medical University Hospital: 22 patients with NPSLE (21 women, 1 man; mean age SD, 32.9 13.7 years), 12 patients with SLE and no CNS manifestations (6 women, 6 men; mean age SD, 39.5 15.1 years), and D-Melibiose 17 OAID (13 women, 4 men; mean age SD, 49.8 18.1 years) with CNS symptoms. OAID CSF samples (numbers in parentheses) were from patients with dermatomyositis (1), adult-onset Still’s disease (1), rheumatoid arthritis (2), periarteritis nodosa (1), vasculitis (2), Sj?gren’s syndrome (4), sarcoidosis (1), Beh?et’s syndrome (2), ulcerative colitis (1), antiphospholipid syndrome (1), or polymyalgia rheumatica (1). Serum and CSF were obtained at presentation and were stored at ?70C. Multiple sclerosis (MS) patient CSF (11 women, 13 men; mean age SD, 41.5 9.8 years) was obtained from the Human Brain and Spinal Fluid Resource Center, Veterans Affairs West Los Angeles Healthcare Center, and from Richard Nash, Fred Hutchison Cancer Research Center (Seattle, WA). Serum from untreated patients with common variable immune deficiency (CVID, = 3) and X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA, = 1) were kindly provided by Charlotte Cunningham-Rundles, Mount Sinai School of Medicine (New York, NY), and Troy Torgerson, Seattle Children’s Hospital (Seattle, WA). The concentrations of IgG in these sera ranged from 100 g to 2.5 mg/ml. Normal CSF was purchased from Arotec Diagnostics. All samples were collected with the review board approval of the respective institutions. IgG was depleted from normal sera by incubation with D-Melibiose protein A-Sepharose CL-4B (GE Healthcare Bio-Sciences) or immobilized protein G plus (Pierce Biotechnology) for 1 h at 4C. Following depletion, residual IgG concentrations were 0.6C1 mg/ml. Table I Clinical and serological features of NPSLE+ patients PCR detection kit (iNtRON Biotechnology) and extracts had 0.06 EU/ml endotoxin by amebocyte lysate clot assay (Associates of Cape Cod). Preparation of primary human astrocytes and microglia Cell cultures were prepared from brains of legally aborted human fetuses (12- to 15-wk gestation using the protocol of Satoh and Kim (27)). In brief, brain tissue freed from blood vessels and meninges was trypsinized, triturated with a fire-polished pipette, and washed in Hanks’ buffer. The resulting cell suspension was cultured in DMEM supplemented with 5% horse serum, 100 U/ml penicillin, and 100 g/ml streptomycin at 37C in a 5% CO2/95% air incubator. For microglial cells, the mixed cultures were supplemented with 10 ng/ml GM-CSF (PeproTech). After 9C21 days, microglial cells were separated from the underlying astrocytic monolayer by gentle agitation using their differential adhesive properties. Microglia cultures routinely consist of 95% microglial cells as determined by Iba1 staining. The astrocytes were plated into poly-l -lysine-coated culture flasks at 6 106 cells/flask in DMEM supplemented as above with G5 supplement (Invitrogen, 1/100). Astrocyte purity assessed by glial fibrillary acidic protein staining was 90%. Freeze-thawed material was made by four cycles of freezing astrocytes at ?70C and thawing at 37C and is referred FCGR3A to as a necrotic extract (26). PBMC and microglia stimulation Cells were plated in 96-well plates at 2.5 104 microglia/well or 5 105 PBMC/well in.